Ziziphus jujube var. spinosa (seed)

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Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H.F. Chow   Rhamnaceae  
Syn. Ziziphus spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex Chen  
Standardized common name (English): jujube  
Pinyin name(s): suan zao; suan zao ren (seeds)

Botanical Voucher Specimen


Ziziphus jujuba Tropicos 100184298 (S).jpg
Ziziphus jujuba
Source: MOBOT, Tropicos.org[1]

Organoleptic Characteristics

Macroscopic Characteristics

Microscopic Characteristics

High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic Identification

Spine date seed, Suan zao ren (seed) HPTLC ID - Anisaldehyde reagent, white RT

Spine date seed, Suan zao ren (seed) (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa)

Lane Assignments Lanes, from left to right (Track, Volume, Sample):

  1. 5 µL Spine date seed #1
  2. 8 µL Spine date seed #1
  3. 10 µL Spine date seed #1
  4. 8 µL Spine date seed #2
  5. 8 µL Spine date seed #3
  6. 8 µL Spine date seed #4
  7. 8 µL Spine date seed #5
  8. 8 µL Spine date seed #6
  9. 8 µL Hederacoside, Glycyrrhizic acid (with increasing Rf)
  10. 8 µL Jujuboside A
  11. 8 µL Jujuboside B
  12. 8 µL Japanese raisintree seed #1
  13. 8 µL Japanese raisintree seed #2
  14. 8 µL Indian jujube seed #1
  15. 5 µL Indian jujube seed #2 

Reference Sample(s) Reference: Dissolve 1 mg of hederacoside in 1 mL of methanol; Dissolve 1 mg of glycyrrhizic acid in 1 mL of methanol; Optional: dissolve 1 mg of jujuboside A and jujuboside B individually in 1 mL of methanol. 

Stationary Phase Stationary phase, i.e. Silica gel 60, F254 

Mobile Phase Dichloromethane, acetic acid, methanol, water 64:32:12:8 (v/v/v/v) 

Sample Preparation Method Sample: Mix 1 g of powdered sample with 5 mL of methanol and sonicate for 10 minutes on a water bath at 60°C, then centrifuge or filter the solution and use the supernatant / filtrate as test solution.

Derivatization reagent: Anisaldehyde reagent, Preparation: 170 mL of ice-cooled methanol are mixed with 20 mL of acetic acid, 10 mL of sulfuric acid and 1 mL of p-anisaldehyde, Use: Dip (time 0, speed 5), heat at 100°C for 3 min. 

Detection Method Saturated chamber; developing distance 70 mm from lower edge; relative humidity 33% 

Other Notes Images presented in this entry are examples and are not intended to be used as basis for setting specifications for quality control purposes.

System suitability test: Hederacoside: green zone at Rf ~ 0.20; Glycyrrhizic acid: pink zone at Rf ~ 0.36.

Identification: Compare result with reference images. The fingerprint of the test solution is similar to that of the corresponding botanical reference sample. Additional weak zones may be present. The chromatogram of the test solution shows a violet zone just below the solvent front and a distinct violet double zone in the upper third. There is a pink zone corresponding to jujuboside B just above the position of reference glycyrrhizic acid. At the position of glycyrrhizic acid there is a weak brownish zone. Below it an olive zone is seen. At the position of hederacoside there is a dark pink zone corresponding to jujuboside A. Below this zone a prominent olive zone is detected.

Test for other species: No intense yellow-orange zone is seen at Rf ~ 0.55 (green arrow, Japanese raisin tree seed). The chromatogram of Indian jujube seed does not show the violet zones corresponding to jujuboside A and B (red arrow).

Source: HPTLC Association [2]

Supplementary Information


  1. MOBOT, Tropicos.org http://www.tropicos.org/Image/100184298
  2. HPTLC Association http://www.hptlc-association.org/
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